Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. It is one of the most common cancers worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in India. It is a complex condition with several different types, each with its unique characteristics and treatment approaches.


Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC):

Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of NSCLC, accounting for about 40% of cases. It usually starts in the outer areas of the lungs and is often found in non-smokers.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma: This type usually begins in the lining of the bronchial tubes and is often linked to smoking. It accounts for approximately 25-30% of NSCLC cases.

Large Cell Carcinoma: Large cell carcinoma is a less common subtype, representing about 10-15% of NSCLC cases. It can appear in any part of the lung and tends to grow and spread quickly.

Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC):

Small cell lung cancer accounts for about 15% of lung cancer cases. It is characterized by rapid growth and a high likelihood of spreading to other parts of the body. SCLC is strongly associated with smoking.

Risk factors

Lung cancer is a complex disease, and its development can be influenced by various risk factors. Understanding these risk factors is crucial for prevention and early detection.

Smoking: Smoking tobacco is the leading cause of lung cancer. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, including over 250 known to be harmful, and at least 60 identified as carcinogens (cancer-causing agents). The risk of developing lung cancer is directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of smoking. Even occasional smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke can increase the risk.

Second-hand Smoke: Also known as passive smoke or environmental tobacco smoke, exposure to the smoke exhaled by smokers or emitted from burning tobacco products increases the risk of lung cancer, particularly in non-smokers and children.

Radon Gas: Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that can seep into homes and buildings through cracks in the foundation. Prolonged exposure to high levels of radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, especially in non-smokers.

Occupational Exposures: Certain workplaces expose individuals to carcinogens, such as asbestos, arsenic, chromium, and diesel exhaust. Jobs in mining, construction, manufacturing, and the automotive industry are examples where workers may be at higher risk.

Family History: Having a first-degree relative (parent, sibling, or child) with a history of lung cancer can slightly increase your risk, suggesting a potential genetic predisposition.

Personal History of Lung Cancer: If you’ve had lung cancer in the past, you are at a higher risk of developing it again, either in the same lung or the other lung.

Air Pollution: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution, including fine particulate matter and industrial pollutants, can contribute to the development of lung cancer, especially in urban areas with poor air quality.

Lung Diseases: Chronic lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis can increase the risk of lung cancer.

Dietary Factors: A diet low in fruits and vegetables and high in processed foods may be associated with a slightly increased risk of lung cancer. Consuming foods rich in antioxidants and vitamins may help reduce this risk.

Radiation Exposure: Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation, such as during certain medical treatments or because of environmental factors like nuclear accidents, can increase the risk of lung cancer.

Personal Habits: Certain personal habits, such as a history of heavy alcohol consumption or a sedentary lifestyle, may contribute to an increased risk of lung cancer.


The disease can manifest with a range of symptoms, although some people may not experience noticeable symptoms in the early stages of the disease. As lung cancer progresses, the following symptoms may become more pronounced:

Persistent Cough: A chronic cough that worsens over time is a common early symptom of lung cancer. This cough may produce mucus or blood (hemoptysis).

Chest Pain: Chest discomfort or chest pain that can vary in intensity and location is another symptom. It may be sharp, dull, or aching and can be felt in the chest, back, or shoulder.

Shortness of Breath: If lung cancer obstructs the airways or affects lung function, it can lead to shortness of breath, even with minimal physical exertion.

Coughing Up Blood: Hemoptysis, or coughing up blood or bloody sputum, can be alarming and is often associated with advanced lung cancer. It requires immediate medical attention from a haemoptysis doctor.

Hoarseness: A persistent change in the voice, such as hoarseness, may result from a tumor pressing on the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Wheezing: Wheezing, which is a high-pitched whistling sound while breathing, can occur when a tumor partially obstructs an airway.

Unexplained Weight Loss: Significant and unexplained weight loss, often accompanied by loss of appetite, can be a symptom of advanced lung cancer.

Fatigue: Persistent tiredness and weakness, even after getting adequate rest, can be a symptom of lung cancer.

Bone Pain: If lung cancer metastasizes (spreads) to the bones, it can cause bone pain, often in the spine, hips, or ribs.

Headaches: Lung cancer that has metastasized to the brain can lead to headaches, dizziness, seizures, or other neurological symptoms.

Swelling of Neck and Face: Superior vena cava syndrome can occur when a tumor compresses the superior vena cava, leading to swelling in the neck and face, along with other symptoms like shortness of breath and redness of the face.

Difficulty Swallowing: Lung cancer can affect the esophagus, leading to difficulty swallowing (dysphagia).

It’s important to note that many of these symptoms can also be caused by other medical conditions, and having one or more of these symptoms doesn’t necessarily mean you have lung cancer. However, if you experience persistent or worsening symptoms, especially if you are at risk due to factors like smoking or family history, it’s essential to consult a healthcare professional for a thorough evaluation and appropriate diagnostic tests, such as imaging and biopsies. Early detection and treatment of lung cancer can significantly improve outcomes.

Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

The diagnosis typically involves a series of medical evaluations and tests to confirm the presence of cancer, determine its type, stage, and extent of spread. Early diagnosis is crucial for better treatment outcomes. Here is an overview of the steps involved in the diagnosis of lung cancer:

Medical History and Physical Examination:

A healthcare provider will begin by taking a detailed medical history, including any risk factors (such as smoking history, exposure to carcinogens, or family history of lung cancer).

A thorough physical examination may be conducted to check for signs of lung cancer or other related conditions.

Imaging Tests:

Chest X-ray: A simple chest X-ray may be the initial imaging test used to identify abnormal masses or lesions in the lungs.

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: CT scans provide more detailed images of the lungs and can help determine the size, location, and extent of the tumor. They are often used to confirm the presence of lung cancer.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: PET scans can help identify areas of increased metabolic activity, aiding in the evaluation of the extent of cancer spread.

A thorough physical examination may be conducted to check for signs of lung cancer or other related conditions.

Sputum Cytology:

In some cases, a sample of mucus or phlegm coughed up by the patient may be examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells.


A biopsy is the most definitive way to diagnose lung cancer. It involves the removal of a small sample of tissue or cells from the suspected cancer site for laboratory analysis.

Types of biopsies include:

Bronchoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the nose or mouth and into the airways to obtain samples from the lung.

Needle Biopsy: A fine needle or core needle is used to extract tissue samples from the lung. This can be done through the skin (percutaneous biopsy) or guided by imaging (CT-guided biopsy).

Thoracoscopy or Mediastinoscopy: Minimally invasive surgical procedures that allow direct visualization and sampling of lymph nodes or lung tissue.

Surgical Biopsy: In some cases, a surgical procedure may be necessary to remove a larger tissue sample for analysis.

Pathology and Molecular Testing:

The tissue samples obtained through biopsy are sent to a pathology laboratory, where they are examined under a microscope. This process helps confirm the presence of cancer and determines its type (e.g., non-small cell or small cell lung cancer).

Molecular testing may be performed on the tissue samples to identify specific genetic mutations or biomarkers, which can guide treatment decisions, especially for targeted therapies.


Once lung cancer is confirmed, staging is crucial to determine the extent of cancer spread. This may involve additional imaging tests, such as CT scans, MRI, and bone scans.

Staging helps classify the cancer into stages I to IV, indicating the size of the tumor and the degree of metastasis (spread). This information is vital for treatment planning.

Consultation with Specialists:

Based on the diagnosis and staging, the patient may be referred to specialists such as oncologists, thoracic surgeons, radiation oncologists, and pulmonologists to develop a comprehensive treatment plan.

Lung Cancer Biomarkers:

For non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specific biomarkers like EGFR mutations, ALK rearrangements, and PD-L1 expression are tested to determine eligibility for targeted therapies and immunotherapy.

The diagnostic process is a collaborative effort involving various healthcare professionals. Once a diagnosis is established, a tailored treatment plan can be developed, which may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and stage. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical in improving the prognosis and quality of life for individuals with the disease.


Treatment approaches vary depending on the type of lung cancer diagnosed. The two main types are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Each type has its unique characteristics, and treatment strategies are tailored accordingly:

The diagnostic process is a collaborative effort involving various healthcare professionals. Once a diagnosis is established, a tailored treatment plan can be developed, which may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and stage. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical in improving the prognosis and quality of life for individuals with the disease.

Treatment Approaches for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC):


Early-Stage NSCLC: For patients with localized NSCLC that has not spread beyond the lung, surgical removal of the tumor or affected lobe of the lung may be recommended. This procedure is known as a lobectomy or pneumonectomy.

Advanced Stage NSCLC: Surgery may also be considered for some advanced-stage NSCLC cases, particularly if the tumor is confined to a specific area and can be safely removed.

Radiation Therapy:

External Beam Radiation: High-energy X-rays are used to target and destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be employed before surgery to shrink tumors, after surgery to eliminate remaining cancer cells, or as a primary treatment for patients who are not candidates for surgery.

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): This precise form of radiation therapy is often used for small, early-stage NSCLC tumors, delivering high doses of radiation with extreme accuracy.


Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. It may be administered before or after surgery, or in combination with radiation therapy.

Targeted Therapy: In cases where specific genetic mutations or biomarkers are present, targeted therapies are drugs that aim to block the action of these mutations.


Immunotherapy drugs, such as checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., pembrolizumab, nivolumab), enhance the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. They are often used in advanced-stage NSCLC, especially when other treatments have not been effective.

Targeted Therapy: In cases where specific genetic mutations or biomarkers are present, targeted therapies are drugs that aim to block the action of these mutations.

Treatment Approaches for Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

SCLC is a more aggressive type, and treatment typically involves a combination of therapies:


Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for SCLC and is often administered in combination with radiation therapy.

It is effective in treating the rapidly dividing cancer cells characteristic of SCLC.

Radiation Therapy:

Radiation therapy is commonly used in SCLC treatment, either as prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) to prevent or treat brain metastases or as part of the initial treatment plan for the primary tumor and nearby lymph nodes.


While immunotherapy has shown promise in treating NSCLC, its role in SCLC is less established. However, some clinical trials are exploring the use of immunotherapy in SCLC treatment.

Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation (PCI):

For patients with SCLC who respond well to initial treatment, PCI may be recommended to reduce the risk of brain metastases, which are common in SCLC.

It’s important to note that treatment plans are highly individualized, considering factors such as the stage of cancer, the patient’s overall health, and the presence of specific genetic mutations or biomarkers. Multidisciplinary teams of oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, and other specialists work together to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy for each patient. Additionally, ongoing research and clinical trials continue to advance treatment options for both NSCLC and SCLC.


What are the common causes of hemoptysis and chest pain?

Hemoptysis (coughing up blood) and chest pain can be caused by pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, lung cancer, tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, or pneumothorax.

Is hemoptysis always a sign of lung cancer?

Hemoptysis is a condition that can range from mild to severe and is commonly brought on by a number of reasons, such as lung cancer, which accounts for 20% of cases. Hemostasis, however, should always be properly evaluated by a medical practitioner if you experience it, as it can occasionally be a sign of a serious underlying problem.

What are the risk factors for developing lung cancer?

Smoking, second-hand smoke exposure, radon gas exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens including asbestos and arsenic, a family history of lung cancer, and a history of certain lung illnesses are risk factors for lung cancer.

How is lung cancer diagnosed in patients presenting with hemoptysis and chest pain?

When a patient has hemoptysis and chest pain, a chest X-ray or CT scan is usually performed to find lesions or masses and make the diagnosis of lung cancer. Bronchoscopy for visual inspection and further imaging (MRI, PET) to determine the extent of the disease if cancer is confirmed.

What are the treatment options for lung cancer patients experiencing hemoptysis and chest pain?

Lung cancer treatment options are dependent upon various circumstances, including the patient’s general health and the type and stage of the cancer. To control symptoms, treatments may involve immunotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and supportive care.

Can chest pain be a symptom of lung cancer spreading to other parts of the body?

Yes, chest pain can suggest that lung cancer has metastasized—or spread—to neighbouring organs or tissues, including the liver, adrenal glands, or bones.

Are there any lifestyle changes or preventive measures to reduce the risk of lung cancer?

Lung cancer risk can be considerably decreased by giving up smoking, limiting exposure to tobacco smoke, and avoiding other environmental carcinogens. Regular exercise along with balanced diet can also help lower the risk.

What should I do if I notice blood in my sputum or experience persistent chest pain?

Seek medical assistance as soon as possible if you have continuous chest pain or detect blood in your sputum. These symptoms necessitate a medical professional’s attention as they may suggest several illnesses, including lung cancer.

What are the possible complications associated with hemoptysis and chest pain in lung cancer patients?

Patients with lung cancer may experience respiratory discomfort, anemia from blood loss, infection, and a reduced quality of life because of hemoptysis and chest pain. Timely medical assessment and suitable intervention can help reduce these issues.

How can I support a loved one who has been diagnosed with lung cancer and is experiencing hemoptysis and chest pain?

A combination of physical assistance and emotional support is needed when a loved one is suffering from lung cancer and its symptoms, such as hemoptysis and chest pain. Encourage them to attend doctor’s appointments and adhere to their treatment plan. assist with routine chores like cleaning and cooking. Plan for them to join support groups.

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